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Modalities of cyberbullying

 
 
 
 
The 12 modalities of cyberbullying

 

Some people refer to cyberbullying as online stalking or harassment, but there are other qualities to cyberbullying that have been described in research (for example, Chrisholm, 2014; Willard, 2017; Young-Jones et al., 2015). 12 modalities including ‘flaming’, ‘catfishing’, and ‘ratting’ have been defined below. 

 
 
 
 
 

1

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

2

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

3

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

4

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

5

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

6

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

7

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

8

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87. 

Young-Jones, A., Fursa, S., Byrket, J.S. et al. Soc Psychol Educ (2015) 18: 185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-014-9287-1

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9

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87. 

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87. 

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Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87.

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