Modalities of cyberbullying

 
 
 
 
The 12 modalities of cyberbullying

 

Some people refer to cyberbullying as online stalking or harassment, but there are other qualities to cyberbullying that have been described in research (for example, Chrisholm, 2014; Willard, 2017; Young-Jones et al., 2015). 12 modalities including ‘flaming’, ‘catfishing’, and ‘ratting’ have been defined below. 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Flaming

 
Electronic messages with fuming and discourteous language.

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Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Harassment

 
Continually sending offensive and rude messages online.

2

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Denigration

 
Spreading rumours online to harm reputations or relationships.

3

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Impersonation

 
Masquerading as someone else and breaking into someone’s account. Posting inflammatory material as that person to damage their status or relationships.

4

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Outing/Trickery

 
Convincing someone into declaring secrets and circulating those secrets online.

5

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Exclusion

 
Maliciously excluding someone online.

 

6

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Cyberstalking

 
Maliciously excluding someone online.

 

7

Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign, IL, US: Research Press.

 
 
 
 

Ratting

 
Remote controlling the computer or webcam without a person’s knowledge or consent and controlling the operations of their computer. 

8

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87. 

 
 
 
 

Hazing

 
Specific harassment inflicted on new or potential group members before they are accepted into the group.

Young-Jones, A., Fursa, S., Byrket, J.S. et al. Soc Psychol Educ (2015) 18: 185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11218-014-9287-1

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Catfishing

 
Deceiving people into emotional relationships by devising fictitious online identities.

9

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87. 

 
 
 
 

Image-based abuse

 
Distributing humiliating and/or sexually suggestive pictures online (also called sexting).

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87. 

11

 
 
 
 

Shock Trolling

 
Spiteful and aggressive messages intended to aggravate or degrade someone in order to incite a reaction.

Chisholm, J. F., PhD. (2014). Review of the status of cyberbullying and cyberbullying prevention. Journal of Information Systems Education, 25(1), 77-87.

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